The Effect of Hot Pepper, Sumac, and Chewing on Gastric inhibitory peptide, Glucagon-like Peptide, and Cholecystokinin Hormone Secretion

GIS Effects of Pepper and Sumac

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Capsaicin, Chewing, Sumac, Gastrointestinal function, Metabolic parameters


Background: The influence of various dietary factors on metabolic responses and gastrointestinal function has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin, chewing, and sumac on metabolic parameters and gastrointestinal function in healthy male volunteers.

Methods: A total of 33 healthy male volunteers aged 18 to 40 years were recruited for the study. Participants underwent four different experimental groups: capsaicin (n=10, a mixed meal containing 467 kcal [22% protein, 46% fat, 32% carbohydrates] and 1 g of capsaicin), chewing (n=11, chewed sugar-free and non-artificial sweetener gum for 5 minutes), sumac (n=7, a meal containing a total of 328 kcal [28% fat, 63% carbohydrates, 9% protein] and 2 g of sumac, and sumac with defecation groups (n=10, a meal containing a total of 328 kcal [28% fat, 63% carbohydrates, 9% protein] and 2 g of sumac. Metabolic parameters including glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels were measured from blood at 0, 5, 10, 25, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes following digestion. Gastrointestinal function was assessed by monitoring bowel movements, stool consistency, and appetite levels. p<0.05 was assumed statistically significant.

Results: The addition of capsaicin did not result in significant changes in glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and CCK levels, as well as appetite and energy intake. Chewing sugar-free gum also had no significant effects on the examined parameters. Similarly, the consumption of sumac did not lead to significant alterations in glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and CCK levels, appetite, or energy intake. However, it was observed that sumac consumption for one week resulted in looser stools without affecting bowel movement frequency or appetite.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chewing or the inclusion of capsaicin, or sumac in the diet does not exert significant effects on metabolic parameters and appetite in healthy male volunteers. However, sumac consumption over a one-week period was associated with a change in stool consistency. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed effects and to explore the potential long-term implications of these dietary factors on metabolic and gastrointestinal health.

Author Biography

Neşe İmeryüz, Marmara University, Department of Gastroeneterology, Istanbul, Turkey





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How to Cite

İslam, M., Haklar, G., Rehfeld, J. F., Holst, J. J., Güneş, F. E., & İmeryüz, N. (2023). The Effect of Hot Pepper, Sumac, and Chewing on Gastric inhibitory peptide, Glucagon-like Peptide, and Cholecystokinin Hormone Secretion: GIS Effects of Pepper and Sumac. Journal of European Internal Medicine Professionals, 1(4), 112–121.



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