The Effect of Hot Pepper, Sumac, and Chewing on Gastric inhibitory peptide, Glucagon-like Peptide, and Cholecystokinin Hormone Secretion

GIS Effects of Pepper and Sumac

Abstract views: 147 / PDF downloads: 56




Capsaicin, Chewing, Sumac, Gastrointestinal function, Metabolic parameters


Background: The influence of various dietary factors on metabolic responses and gastrointestinal function has been the subject of extensive research. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of capsaicin, chewing, and sumac on metabolic parameters and gastrointestinal function in healthy male volunteers.

Methods: A total of 33 healthy male volunteers aged 18 to 40 years were recruited for the study. Participants underwent four different experimental groups: capsaicin (n=10, a mixed meal containing 467 kcal [22% protein, 46% fat, 32% carbohydrates] and 1 g of capsaicin), chewing (n=11, chewed sugar-free and non-artificial sweetener gum for 5 minutes), sumac (n=7, a meal containing a total of 328 kcal [28% fat, 63% carbohydrates, 9% protein] and 2 g of sumac, and sumac with defecation groups (n=10, a meal containing a total of 328 kcal [28% fat, 63% carbohydrates, 9% protein] and 2 g of sumac. Metabolic parameters including glucose, insulin, Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and cholecystokinin (CCK) levels were measured from blood at 0, 5, 10, 25, 45, 60, 120, and 180 minutes following digestion. Gastrointestinal function was assessed by monitoring bowel movements, stool consistency, and appetite levels. p<0.05 was assumed statistically significant.

Results: The addition of capsaicin did not result in significant changes in glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and CCK levels, as well as appetite and energy intake. Chewing sugar-free gum also had no significant effects on the examined parameters. Similarly, the consumption of sumac did not lead to significant alterations in glucose, insulin, GIP, GLP-1, and CCK levels, appetite, or energy intake. However, it was observed that sumac consumption for one week resulted in looser stools without affecting bowel movement frequency or appetite.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that chewing or the inclusion of capsaicin, or sumac in the diet does not exert significant effects on metabolic parameters and appetite in healthy male volunteers. However, sumac consumption over a one-week period was associated with a change in stool consistency. Further investigations are required to elucidate the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed effects and to explore the potential long-term implications of these dietary factors on metabolic and gastrointestinal health.

Author Biography

Neşe İmeryüz, Marmara University, Department of Gastroeneterology, Istanbul, Turkey





Morton GJ, Meek TH, Schwartz MW. Neurobiology of food intake in health and disease Morton GJ, Meek TH, Schwartz MW. Neurobiology of food intake in health and disease. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2014;15(6):367-378. doi:10.1038/nrn3745

Tschöp MH, Speakman JR, Arch JR, et al. A guide to analysis of mouse energy metabolism. Nat Methods. 2011;9(1):57-63. Published 2011 Dec 28. doi:10.1038/nmeth.1806Moris JM, Heinold C, Blades A, Koh Y. Nutrient-Based Appetite Regulation. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2022;31(2):161-168. doi:10.7570/jomes22031

Crooks B, Stamataki NS, McLaughlin JT. Appetite, the enteroendocrine system, gastrointestinal disease, and obesity. Proc Nutr Soc. 2021;80(1):50-58. doi:10.1017/S0029665120006965

Bouhlal S, Ellefsen KN, Sheskier MB, et al. Acute effects of intravenous cocaine administration on serum concentrations of ghrelin, amylin, glucagon-like peptide-1, insulin, leptin, and peptide YY and relationships with cardiorespiratory and subjective responses. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017;180:68-75. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.07.033

Moris JM, Heinold C, Blades A, Koh Y. Nutrient-Based Appetite Regulation. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2022;31(2):161-168. doi:10.7570/jomes22031

Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med. 2004;1(3):e62. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0010062

Seino Y, Yamazaki Y. Roles of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in diet-induced obesity. J Diabetes Investig. 2022;13(7):1122-1128. doi:10.1111/jdi.13816

Meier JJ, Nauck MA. Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) in biology and pathology. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21(2):91-117. doi:10.1002/dmrr.538

Meier JJ, Nauck MA. Glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) in biology and pathology. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21(2):91-117. doi:10.1002/dmrr.538

Steinert RE, Feinle-Bisset C, Asarian L, Horowitz M, Beglinger C, Geary N. Ghrelin, CCK, GLP-1, and PYY(3-36): Secretory Controls and Physiological Roles in Eating and Glycemia in Health, Obesity, and After RYGB [published correction appears in Physiol Rev. 2017 Jul 1;97(3):1229]. Physiol Rev. 2017;97(1):411-463. doi:10.1152/physrev.00031.2014

Xu J, Xiao X, Li Y, et al. The effect of gum chewing on blood GLP-1 concentration in fasted, healthy, non-obese men. Endocrine. 2015;50(1):93-98. doi:10.1007/s12020-015-0566-1

Pilichiewicz AN, Chaikomin R, Brennan IM, et al. Load-dependent effects of duodenal glucose on glycemia, gastrointestinal hormones, antropyloroduodenal motility, and energy intake in healthy men. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;293(3):E743-E753. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00159.2007

Govindarajan VS, Sathyanarayana MN. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality. Part V. Impact on physiology, pharmacology, nutrition, and metabolism; structure, pungency, pain, and desensitization sequences. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1991;29(6):435-474. doi:10.1080/10408399109527536

Caterina MJ, Schumacher MA, Tominaga M, Rosen TA, Levine JD, Julius D. The capsaicin receptor: a heat-activated ion channel in the pain pathway. Nature. 1997;389(6653):816-824. doi:10.1038/39807

Mózsik G, Past T, Abdel Salam OM, Kuzma M, Perjési P. Interdisciplinary review for correlation between the plant origin capsaicinoids, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, gastrointestinal mucosal damage and prevention in animals and human beings. Inflammopharmacology. 2009;17(3):113-150. doi:10.1007/s10787-009-0002-3

Leung FW, Golub M, Tuck M, Yip I, Leung JW, Go VL. Stimulation of intestinal mucosal afferent nerves increases superior mesenteric artery and decreases mesenteric adipose tissue blood flow. Dig Dis Sci. 2001;46(6):1217-1222. doi:10.1023/a:1010655010983

Zheng J, Zheng S, Feng Q, Zhang Q, Xiao X. Dietary capsaicin and its anti-obesity potency: from mechanism to clinical implications. Biosci Rep. 2017;37(3): BSR20170286. Published 2017 May 11. doi:10.1042/BSR20170286

Smeets AJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS. The acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on energy and substrate utilisation, hormones, and satiety. Eur J Nutr. 2009;48(4):229-234. doi:10.1007/s00394-009-0006-1

Morshedloo M.R., Maggi F., Neko H.T., Aghdam M.S. Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruit: Essential oil variability in Iranian populations. Ind. Crop. Prod. 2018;111:1–7. doi: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2017.10.002.

Mohammadi S, Montasser Kouhsari S, Monavar Feshani A. Antidiabetic properties of the ethanolic extract of Rhus coriaria fruits in rats. Daru. 2010;18(4):270-275.

Gong L, Feng D, Wang T, Ren Y, Liu Y, Wang J. Inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase: Potential linkage for whole cereal foods on prevention of hyperglycemia. Food Sci Nutr. 2020;8(12):6320-6337. Published 2020 Nov 4. doi:10.1002/fsn3.1987

Nauck MA, Holst JJ, Willms B, Schmiegel W. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) as a new therapeutic approach for type 2-diabetes. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1997;105(4):187-195. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1211750

Rehfeld JF. Accurate measurement of cholecystokinin in plasma. Clin Chem. 1998;44(5):991-1001.

Mendieta-Zerón H, López M, Diéguez C. Gastrointestinal peptides controlling body weight homeostasis. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;155(3):481-495. doi:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.11.009

N. Kannan, G. Subramanian, P. Musmade, A. Ranjith Kumar. Stability indicating HPTLC determination of capsaicin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Journal of Planar Chromatography- Modern TLC. Volume 21; 271-75, 2008

Viuda-Martos M, Ruiz-Navajas Y, Fernández-López J, Pérez-Alvarez JA. Spices as functional foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2011;51(1):13-28. doi:10.1080/10408390903044271

Xie, J., Liao, B., Tang, R. (2020). Functional Application Of Sulfur-containing Spice Compounds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 45(68), 12505-12526.

Lu VB, Gribble FM, Reimann F. Nutrient-Induced Cellular Mechanisms of Gut Hormone Secretion. Nutrients. 2021;13(3):883. Published 2021 Mar 9. doi:10.3390/nu13030883

Raybould HE. Nutrient sensing in the gastrointestinal tract: possible role for nutrient transporters. J Physiol Biochem. 2008;64(4):349-356. doi:10.1007/BF03174091

Reimann F, Gribble FM. Mechanisms underlying glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion. J Diabetes Investig. 2016;7 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):13-19. doi:10.1111/jdi.12478

Dockray GJ. Gastrointestinal hormones and the dialogue between gut and brain. J Physiol. 2014;592(14):2927-2941. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.270850

Miyawaki K, Yamada Y, Ban N, et al. Inhibition of gastric inhibitory polypeptide signaling prevents obesity. Nat Med. 2002;8(7):738-742. doi:10.1038/nm727

Song DH, Getty-Kaushik L, Tseng E, Simon J, Corkey BE, Wolfe MM. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide enhances adipocyte development and glucose uptake in part through Akt activation. Gastroenterology. 2007;133(6):1796-1805. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.09.005

de Graaf C, Blom WA, Smeets PA, Stafleu A, Hendriks HF. Biomarkers of satiation and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(6):946-961. doi:10.1093/ajcn/79.6.946

Maljaars J, Peters HP, Masclee AM. Review article: The gastrointestinal tract: neuroendocrine regulation of satiety and food intake. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2007;26 Suppl 2:241-250. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2007.03550.x

Wøjdemann M, Wettergren A, Hartmann B, Hilsted L, Holst JJ. Inhibition of sham feeding-stimulated human gastric acid secretion by glucagon-like peptide-2. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(7):2513-2517. doi:10.1210/jcem.84.7.5840

Kokrashvili Z, Mosinger B, Margolskee RF. Taste signaling elements expressed in gut enteroendocrine cells regulate nutrient-responsive secretion of gut hormones. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(3):822S-825S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.27462T

Liddle RA, Green GM, Conrad CK, Williams JA. Proteins but not amino acids, carbohydrates, or fats stimulate cholecystokinin secretion in the rat. Am J Physiol. 1986;251(2 Pt 1):G243-G248. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.1986.251.2.G243

Rayne S, Mazza G. Biological activities of extracts from sumac (Rhus spp.): a review. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2007;62(4):165-175. doi:10.1007/s11130-007-0058-4

Kizil S, Turk M. Microelement contents and fatty acid compositions of Rhus coriaria L. and Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits spread commonly in the south eastern Anatolia region of Turkey. Nat Prod Res. 2010;24(1):92-98. doi:10.1080/14786410903132555

Shidfar F, Rahideh ST, Rajab A, et al. The Effect of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.)Powder on Serum Glycemic Status, ApoB, ApoA-I and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014;13(4):1249-1255.

McCune LM, Johns T. Antioxidant activity in medicinal plants associated with the symptoms of diabetes mellitus used by the indigenous peoples of the North American boreal forest. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;82(2-3):197-205. doi:10.1016/s0378-8741(02)00180-0

Mohit M, Nouri M, Samadi M, et al. The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) supplementation on glycemic indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Med. 2021;61:102766. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2021.102766

Hargrove JL, Greenspan P, Hartle DK, Dowd C. Inhibition of aromatase and α-amylase by flavonoids and proanthocyanidins from Sorghum bicolor bran extracts. J Med Food. 2011;14(7-8):799-807. doi:10.1089/jmf.2010.0143

Martinelli G, Angarano M, Piazza S, et al. The Nutraceutical Properties of Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) against Gastritis: Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Gastric Epithelial Cells Infected with H. pylori. Nutrients. 2022;14(9):1757. Published 2022 Apr 22. doi:10.3390/nu14091757

Farag MA, Abdelwareth A, Sallam IE, et al. Metabolomics reveals impact of seven functional foods on metabolic pathways in a gut microbiota model. J Adv Res. 2020;23:47-59. Published 2020 Jan 3. doi:10.1016/j.jare.2020.01.001

Mahernia S, Bagherzadeh K, Mojab F, Amanlou M. Urease Inhibitory Activities of some Commonly Consumed Herbal Medicines. Iran J Pharm Res. 2015;14(3):943-947.




How to Cite

İslam, M., Haklar, G., Rehfeld, J. F., Holst, J. J., Güneş, F. E., & İmeryüz, N. (2023). The Effect of Hot Pepper, Sumac, and Chewing on Gastric inhibitory peptide, Glucagon-like Peptide, and Cholecystokinin Hormone Secretion: GIS Effects of Pepper and Sumac. Journal of European Internal Medicine Professionals, 1(4), 112–121.



Original Article


Most read articles by the same author(s)